Computer Generation

Computer Generation is a concept that refers to the stages of development and evolution of computer technology from time to time. Since the invention of the first computer, this technology has undergone major changes that took us from ancient computers to the sophisticated modern era of computing. This article will review the development of the computer generation and the changes that occur at each stage.

First Generation: Vacuum Tube Computers

The first generation of computers started in the 1940’s to early 1950’s. At this time, computers used vacuum tubes as the main component. Computers in this generation were huge, expensive, and generated a lot of heat. A famous example of the first generation is the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), the largest computer of its time.

Second Generation: Transistors

In the late 1950s to mid-1960s, transistors replaced vacuum tubes as the main component in computers. These changes resulted in computers that were smaller, faster, more reliable, and more energy efficient than previous generations. An important example of the second generation was the IBM 1401 computer, which introduced the use of batch-based data processing.

Third Generation: Integrated Circuit (IC)

The third generation of computers began in the mid-1960s when the integrated circuit (IC) was invented. IC is a technology that integrates several transistors and electronic components onto a single silicon chip. This resulted in computers that were smaller, more efficient, and more affordable. One well-known example of this generation was the DEC PDP-8 minicomputer.

Fourth Generation: Microprocessors

In the early 1970s, the microprocessor was invented, which is a chip that contains the central processing unit (CPU) and other important components on a single chip. These developments made it possible for the production of affordable and easy-to-use personal computers (PCs) for individuals.

Computers in this generation, such as the Apple II computer and the IBM PC, changed the world of computing by bringing computer technology into homes and offices.

Fifth Generation: Parallel Computers and Networks

The fifth generation of computers started in the late 1980s to the present. The main development in this generation was the use of parallel computers, in which several processors work together to increase processing speed and capability. In addition, the development of computer networks connects computers to enable efficient sharing of resources and information. The Internet is one of the greatest achievements of this generation.

The Sixth Generation: Mobile and Intelligent Computing

We are currently in the era of the sixth generation of computers, marked by developments in mobile computing and artificial intelligence. Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets have brought computing into our hands. In addition, advances in artificial intelligence are enabling computers to perform tasks previously only capable of humans, such as speech and image recognition, natural language processing, and complex data analysis.

Future Challenges and Hopes

Even though it has reached an extraordinary level of development, computer technology continues to face challenges and various expectations in the future. One of the challenges is overcoming the physical and technical limitations in increasing computer speed, capacity, and efficiency.

On the other hand, hopes for the future include the development of quantum computers, distributed computing, and the development of more sophisticated artificial intelligence systems.

The Influence of the Development of Computer Generation

The development of the computer generation has had a significant impact on various aspects of human life. They have changed the way we work, communicate, access information and live our daily lives.

Computers have been used in various fields, such as science, business, education, entertainment, and industry. The development of computer technology continues to open the door for innovation and progress in the future.


The development of the computer generation has exceeded boundaries that were difficult to imagine at first. From vacuum tube computers to mobile computing and artificial intelligence, computer technology has contributed greatly to advancing the world.

With the continuous emergence of new innovations and inventions, the future of computer technology is very exciting. It is important for us to keep abreast of developments and adopt existing technologies to drive progress in various areas of human life.